Definition of Terms
Quality in this context shows the significance of order. Moreover, it can mean different things in different environments and on the outputs the project is being created. In some cases, it means achieving specified goals within specified time and resource constraints. In other cases, it means meeting, achieving, or exceeding the highest possible degree of customer satisfaction at the lowest overall cost with increased efficiency to the organization. In still cases, it means achieving the highest possible degree of work, product, service, and/or process excellence. Yet, it is generally related to an important attribute in works, products, services, and/or processes.
Quality Assurance in this context is a systematic activities used and implemented within the quality plan of an organization to measure, monitor, and achieve the integrity and effectiveness of work, product, service, and/or process that demonstrate a level of confidence (the state of being certain or the act of making certain) in maintaining and delivering the acceptable quality, desired outcome, and completeness and correctness of the end results based on organization established criteria, wide standards, and requirements accurately.
Quality Control in this context is the implementation of the quality program used and implemented within the quality plan of an organization to examine work, product, service, and/or process that demonstrate a level of quality in complying with the ongoing customer specifications and/or requirements in a sustainable manner.
Quality Criteria in this context is based upon a framework in which organization and/or quality manager can:
- specify the quality requirements and implement and/or make claims about the quality attributes of the products, services, and/or processes;
- decide how much focus one must put on the quality of the project and how much on the quality of the deliverables; and
- specify the quality criteria against which the quality of the output will be measured (e.g. fitness for purpose, best practice for processes, adherence to a specific standard or specification, usability, accessibility, validity, etc).
Moreover, quality criteria provides assurance that the process of specification, implementation, and evaluation of product, services, and/or processes has been conducted in a rigorous and standard manner.
Quality Improvement in this context captures statistics, lessons learned, and What goes wrong (problem) around quality implemented within the quality plan of an organization to examine approaches and methods of quality management and techniques that demonstrate a level of reliability in driving, reinforcing, improving, and achieving continually the success and efficiency and cost effectiveness of work, product, service, and/or process.
Moreover, any improvement (change) takes time to implement, gain acceptance, and stabilize as accepted practice. Improvement must allow pauses between implementing new changes so that the change is stabilized and assessed as a real improvement, before the next improvement is made (hence continual improvement, not continuous improvement).
Furthermore, improvements that change the culture take longer as they have to overcome greater resistance to change.
Further, improvement is easier and often more effective to work within the existing cultural boundaries and make small improvements than to make major transformational changes. Transformational change works best when an organization faces a crisis and needs to make major changes in order to survive.
Well organized quality improvement programs take all factors into account when selecting the quality improvement methods.
Quality management in this context is a method that ensures all the activities necessary to design, develop, and implement work, product, service, and/or process are effective and efficient with respect to the application of quality management system and its performance.
Quality management can be considered to have three main components:
- Quality Control
- Quality Assurance
- Quality Improvement
Moreover, quality management focuses not only on product quality, but also the reliability, maintainability, and safety of the means to achieve it.
Quality plan in this context is a critical plan that establishes what quality means to the project, enables quality manager to agree on a set of quality goals and targets with his/her project sponsor and client, shows how and when it will achieve the quality goals and targets, and shows the quality processes it will put in place. Moreover, it describes what needs to be done and who should do it. That is, it identifies responsibilities, accountabilities, and relationships of those participating in the quality process.
Quality plan generally consists of the following sections:
- Quality Statement
- Quality Process
- Quality Criteria
Quality Process is designed, managed, and improved in order to support an entire work, product, and service life cycle, improve quality of works, products, services, and/or processes; and satisfy and increase value for the project sponsor and client. Usually it matches the specific project requirements and the project sponsor and clientâ€™s needs. The QA team must develop advanced skills in managing and improving the quality processes. By reason of, these quality processes will have a strong impact on their reputation, profile, and standing – credibility with project sponsor and client. This impact will also contribute to their image in terms of its capacity to implement quality policies.
Quality process is divided into three sub-sections.
- Quality Program
- Quality Review
- Quality Workflow
Quality Record in this context describes the procedures for maintaining the quality records (metrics, variance reports, executed checklists etc) during project execution as well as after the project completion.
Quality Statement in this context is a statement used to provide project sponsor and client with the necessary level of quality requirements in works, products, services, and/or processes. It centres on issues and/or concerns relating to the functionality (suitability, accuracy, interoperability, security), reliability (maturity, fault tolerance, recoverability), usability (understandability, learnability, operability), efficiency (time behavior, resource utilization), maintainability (analyzability, changeability, stability, testability), and portability (adaptability, installability, conformance, replaceability) of works, products, services, and/or processes (1).
- Adherence to standards
- Bugs per lines of code
- Number of reported problems
- Size of variances in schedule, budget cost
- Cost of rework
- Client sign-off
- Client satisfaction ratings
- Amount of follow-on business
Quality Workflow in this context describes the repeatable pattern of quality activity enabled by a systematic organization of resources, defined roles and responsibilities, and information flows into a quality process. Moreover, it helps the systematic organization to evaluate the efficiency of the flow route in increasing discrete control of uniquely identified business attributes and rules and reducing potential low efficiency drivers.